Observation, task validation and fairness

Observation, task validation and fairness






Examine at least three (3) concepts or principles of your selected topic in light of traditional theories.

National Education Technology Standards (N.E.T.S) for students and teachers aims to integrate technology in the American education systems in a bid to advance learning by enabling students to interconnect, unravel problems, make choices, think analytically, conduct research with ease as well as analyze the collected data (ISTE, 2012). National Education Technology Standards transforms traditional learning environs which were characterized by teacher-centered tutoring, use of a single-sense andpath in advancement, single media use, lone work, passive knowledge-based learning, use of artificial context and authenticity to modern learning environs where learning is student centered, evokes use of many senses, use of various tactics to advance, active content based learning, working together, sharing information, informed decision making and study of real world context. The National Education Technology Standards are also tools used in teacher and student assessment.

Analyze at least three (3) current (last 10 years) ways in which your selected topic is being applied in the K-12 assessment.

National Education Technology Standards are used in k-12 teacher and student assessment. The purpose of assessment is to deliver information on students’ presentheights of accomplishments and to inform teachers on what would improve or deteriorate students’ progress (Heritage, 2010). Computers and cameras are being used by institution administrations to monitor student’s attendance and their advancements in incorporating technology in their studies (ISTE, 2012). With technology, indiscipline among students has also been reduced.in addition teachers can measure student’s intelligence and understanding of classwork through issuing assignments and quizzes via the internet social networks or websites.

National Education Technology Standards are a tool used to measure how teachers are embracing technology in schools and if they are using the technology in a rightful way under controlled environment (Heritage, 2010).

Analyze at least three (3) challenges (fairness must be one of the challenges) related to your selectedtopic that educators face regarding observational situations, task validation, and assessment.

Despite the effort to incorporate technology in learning, there are students who have totally no access to the equipment’s like computers. Others do not access the equipment’s to a level that would be considered beneficial to them.in other words technology is not fairly distributed among students and teachers due to internal and external factors like finances and attitudes. There are some teachers who refuse to embrace technology in teaching because they are biased with the traditional ways of teaching and argue they have no defects unlike the new ways whose outcomes are uncertain. Other teachers go ahead to criticize that technology use is timely and cost ineffective especially where students decline to apply it. The school administrations are also afraid that the technology they introduce may not be utilized maximally by teachers and students rendering the project unworthy.

Recommend at least one (1) way to address each of the challenges (one (1) recommendation for eachchallenge).

Teachers with negative attitudes toward technology should be informed on the benefits of technology to them and the students. The American government should ensure that education funds are fairly distributed so that every institution gets its monetary share to implement the needed technology in schools.

Develop an observation tool with at least 10 items for use with a specific student group and subjectmatter.

The formal assessment tool is a test- based measure (Brown, 2006). Items used include cumulative reviews, teacher-made tests, quizzes, common assessments, documented teacher observation, integrated and cross-curricular assessment, journals, performances, portfolios, student-teacher conferences and student self-assessment

Provide a rationale for the use of the tool, emphasizing the theory on which the tool is based, and highlighting at least two (2) benefits, highlighting how the tool will help meet the learning objectives.

This tool indicates student responses and assist teachers in guiding students towards realizing their targets as well outline and give instructions within a unit effectively. The tool also identifies student misconceptions of a concept equipping teachers with information to determine the nature of the misconception and suggest solutions (Brown, 2006).

Examine at least one (1) limitation of the tool and propose a way to address the limitation.

The formal observational tool does not adequately equip teachers with the information required to restructure experiences and plans. The tool fails to engage in perpetual relations that assist students to learn from the experiences (Brown, 2006).

Assess various measures for assessing learners� progress, including formal, test-based measures, and informal and observational measures.

When teachers methodically assemble the accurate information and use it commendably, they help their students comprehend content intensely, contemplate at advanced levels and become self-guided. Informal methods of communicating inform students and parents about learning frameworks, achievements and requirements. Informal measures of assessment include telephone calls, notices, notes, signed work, conversations, meetings, classroom visits, contracts, e-mail, ( K-12 Student Assessment,2011).

Formal methods of communication and reporting occur at chosen intervals in a year. Outcomes, learning contexts, evaluation and reporting system must be outlined. Formal methods include regularly distributed report cards and student and or parent conferences. Test based measures include reviews, tests, quizzes, regular assessments, documented teacher observation, cross-curricular assessment, journals, performances, portfolios, student-teacher conferences and personal assessment( K-12 Student Assessment,2011).

Analyze traditional theories of assessment.

Traditional theories of assessment judged the student’s strength through summative assessment measures like scores in examinations, quizzes, assignments and class participation( K-12 Student Assessment,2011).

Utilize a methodology for linking assessment practices to learning objectives.

Teachers encourage learning in student by clarifying learning goals to be achieved. It is important for students and teachers to collaborate in development personal and institutional goals. When students are confronted with new experiences, teachers help them connect past and new experiences (K-12 Student Assessment, 2011) Teachers also provide feedback to students. The feedback is important as it informs a student on their areas of weakness so they can work on them as well as help them gauge if they gave achieved their goals. Finally, teachers help students develop their own self‐monitoring skills so that they can make changes in their study techniques (Doel & Shardlow, 2009).

Evaluate strategies for a variety of assessment instruments and the theories behind them

Pre-instructional Assessment determines students’ strengths and needs and directs the teacher on how to give instruction. It incorporates oral and written responses based on individual experience to measure prior knowledge. Items used in the pre instructional assessments are; inventories, student-teacher meetings, collective student records andbrainstorming. All this help teachers determine student prior-knowledge(K-12 Student Assessment, 2011)

Formative Assessment provides information to help guide teachers give unit instructions. Assessment tools used are; teacher observations, work trials andportfolios, self-evaluation, tests, assignments and projects. It gives descriptive feedback that informs students of their areas of strength and needs (K-12 Student Assessment, 2011).

Summative Assessment is an assessment enlightens student and the teacher on levels of understanding and performance capabilities that the student has achieved. It is intended to provide information used in making decisions about timely students’ accomplishments particularly when a unit or concept will not be revisited. Summative assessment also indicates to the teachers on the concepts to revisit. Tools used in summative include: projects, recorded teacher annotations, presentations, tests and mutualexams (K-12 Student Assessment, 2011).

Use technology and information resources to research issues in educational assessment.

The current educational assessment is retrospective in that it does not provide teachers with indicators of emotional, intellectual and spiritual improvements. The assessment is short of providing guidance required to support learning. Current education assessments are also static and lack skills to measure level of understanding. However, the assessments identify student misconceptions as well as their nature. Dynamic assessment analyzes student’s responses but does not inform teachers about possible changes.


Brown. L. G (2006) Physical Education Assessment Toolkit. Illinois: Human Kinetics

K-12 Student Assessment, Evaluation and Grading Policy(2011) Retrieved- November 24, 2012, from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDkQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wnlsd.ca%2FPortals%2F0%2Foperational%2Feducation%2FK-12%2520Student%2520Assessment%2C%2520Evaluation%2520and%2520Grading.pdf&ei=Xa2wUKWLMYi3hAeO3IGwAw&usg=AFQjCNHODKP_8ONYWZI0kesk1-lBlKBEBgInternational Society for Technology in Education (2012) Retrieved-November 23,2012,fromHYPERLINK “http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iste.org%2FSTANDARDS&ei=aa6wUIi8O4iLhQft5YGYCQ&usg=AFQjCNHhqwAdIbM6Qux5vuyaqkqET731_w”http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iste.org%2FSTANDARDS&ei=aa6wUIi8O4iLhQft5YGYCQ&usg=AFQjCNHhqwAdIbM6Qux5vuyaqkqET731_w

Shardlow. , Doel. (2009) Educating Professionals: Practice Learning in Health and Social Care. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing